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Título:PHOTOGRAPHING AND DOCUMENTING IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION: A PLAY OF LIGHT AND SHADOWInstituição:PONTIFÍCIA UNIVERSIDADE CATÓLICA DO RIO DE JANEIRO - PUC-RIO Autor(es):ELISE HELENE MOUTINHO B DE MORAES
This thesis has as the object of study the photographic language in the process of documenting and narrating the experiences and learning of children in early childhood education. The research aimed to understand and analyze the production of records and documentation with photography in a public preschool in the city of Erechim, located in the north of the state of Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil. The theoretical contribution is anchored mainly in the contributions of the pedagogical approach developed in the Italian city of Reggio Emilia, which gives a central role to the pedagogical documentation, focusing on the child, its processes, languages, thoughts, and ways of being. The immersion in the research field took place for approximately eight months – between 2018 and 2019 – and was carried out through concomitant activities: participatory observation – in collective spaces of the school and with the accompaniment of four groups to children aged 4-5; and interactive dialogues – interviews with educators and participation in educator meetings in the context. The investigative focus of immersion in the school was guided by the following questions: What processes the photography makes visible? Who is responsible for shooting? What child does photography communicate? How and when the photos are shot? What do educators want to communicate with the photos? Initially, the research had an exploratory character and progressively assumed a participant character, defined as a research-action. The data constructed with the immersion in the school were of a different nature - field notes, audio recordings and photographs taken by the researcher. The treatment of the data was based on analysis of content, with the support of the ATLAS.ti software, constituting two broader categories – Lights and Shadows – which clarify the processes gave visibility, but also what was invisible the way of shooting and publicizing the photographs. The photographs produced by the researcher received an analytical treatment complementary to the analysis of content, which started from an aesthetic/creative experience of creating an atlas – in the perspective of Didi-Huberman, as a visual way of organizing and giving meaning to the images. Part of these photographs were narrated from ministories – a sensitive proposal to understand the children s point of view about their learning built and investigations. The research shows that there is consensus in what should be photographed or exposed by the images, and what should not be shown. The photographic language asserts itself as a propositional tool for educators, children, families, and the community to share the processes experienced, contributing to the reflective practice of educators and to the visibility of childhoods.