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The main objective of this work was to evaluate the mechanical, physical and microestructure properties of
cementitious composite materials and bamboo laminates. The experimental program was focused on the determination of toughness. Three diferent types of tests were performed in order to establish it: Charpy impact, ballistic impact and three point bending test. After the tests, the fractured surface of the failed test specimens was observed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to establish the failure mode. Mathematical models adapted from the available literature were used to determine the toughness from which the values were confronted to the ones obtained experimentally. It was also determined by mathematical models the interfacial bond stress of all fibers used in this research. The two models, used in the toughness and interfacial bond stress calculation, showed to be efficient, providing valid results. In second plan, but not less important, was the determination of the materials thermal properties. Thermal conductivity tests of the composites and thermogravimetry of the fibers and bamboo were performed. The cementitious composites were reinforced by different natural fibers: refined bamboo pulp (CPB), sisal pulp (CPS), eucalyptus pulp (CPE), short sisal fibers (CPFS) and wollastonite. The mass fraction of bamboo, sisal and eucalyptus pulp studied were 8 percent and 14 percent. For the wollastonite fiber the mass fraction studied was 11.5 percent and for the short sisal fiber a 3 percent volume fraction was studied.
Hybrid composites made with wollastonite and bamboo pulp (CPBW) were also produced varying the bamboo fraction mass to 8 percent and 14 percent but keeping constant to 11.5 percent the wollastonite mass fraction. The slurry de-watering process was used in the production of all composites described
before. To reduce the adverse effects of weathering on the cellulose fibers and to improve the impact load and flexural resistance of the composite, aluminum thin sheets were used to produce a sandwich composite lamina with the CPB, which was denominated as CPBA. Compound Adhesive gel from Otto Baumgart which is a type of epoxy was used to fix the aluminum sheets on the CPB. The use of aluminum has proved to give much higher impact resistance results when compared to the CPB ones. The 5 years old Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla pubescens), which was previously treated in boiled water to eliminate biological agents, was used to produce the bamboo laminates. Techniques were developed to extract bamboo laminates from its natural form, establishing its advantages and disadvantages. For
the Charpy impact test, a total of 18 specimens with nominal dimensions of 120 mm x 15 mm x 6 mm were tested. Laminated (BL) and 3 layer cross ply laminated bamboo (BLC) were tested in bending. A total of 9 specimens were tested per bamboo configuration. The BL specimens had nominal dimensions of 120 mm x 30 mm x 6 mm and the BLC were 120 mm x 30 mm x 17 mm. The results demonstrated the good
toughness of bamboo laminates when subject to dynamic (42.54 kJ/m2) and to static load (19.77 kJ/m2 for the laminate and 17.63 kJ/m2 for the cross ply laminate). Aluminum thin sheets were again used to make sandwich composites, but now using the bamboo laminate (BLCA). The BLCA was tested using the ballistic impact test following the standard NIJ 0101.04. Analysis on the Scanning Eléctron Microscope (SEM) were performed in order to establish the laminate s failure mechanisms.