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Título:A NUCLEOLUS BASED QUOTA ALLOCATION MODEL FOR THE BITCOIN REFUNDED BLOCKCHAIN NETWORK Instituição:PONTIFÍCIA UNIVERSIDADE CATÓLICA DO RIO DE JANEIRO - PUC-RIO Autor(es):EDUARDO MAURO BAPTISTA BOLONHEZ
Mining Bitcoins is an uncertain activity, and to perform it, players must compete in a process known as Proof-Of-Work. A miner may spend months or even years without positive cash flows on this process, while
still incurring in the associated costs. This outcome has the possibility to drive them away from the technology, and the departure of members affects the network itself, as it cannot survive without the presence of miners. This work proposes to study the sharing of rewards in structures already
presented in the network: miners joining forces and taking place in mining pools, sharing revenues and costs, thus having positive cash flows more often, reducing variability in gains. The revenues and costs are modeled, and a stochastic optimization model is proposed to find the optimal allocations that guarantee that all members stay within the pool. This group of miners is characterized by a coalition, studied through Game Theory. The behavior of the players is also subject of this study, and a monetary risk measure,
by the form of CVaR (Conditional Value at Risk) is used to represent the miner s risk profile and consequences to the optimal allocations. While there is no strict benefit from being part of a pool for a single block, there is financial gain when looking at multi-period, and the average time to correctly guess a hash decreases when players join forces in a pool. A gain in mining probability by being in the pool would raise the average reward of the coalition and allow for financial benefit even in single period.We observe
that intuitive sharing allocations such as through computational power and equally dividing rewards may not guarantee the stability of the pool, mainly when longer periods of time are considered. Said stability is possible in the future without fixed incomes, but with changes to the variable rewards and the costs of mining. Lastly, three different objective functions representing three ideas to share the rewards within the nucleolus are compared and a method is proposed to collectively use at least two of them, aiming increased fairness in the sharing of rewards.