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Título:OCCUPATION OF THREE STATE SCHOOLS IN RIO DE JANEIRO: GROUP ACTION, CLAIMS, AND CONQUESTSInstituição:PONTIFÍCIA UNIVERSIDADE CATÓLICA DO RIO DE JANEIRO - PUC-RIO Autor(es):ADRIANA DA SILVA LISBOA TOMAZ
In this thesis, we investigate the perception of students who took part in 2016 schools occupation, focusing on groups of students who were for and against the movement. The research uses a qualitative and exploratory approach of the theme, considering authors who have studied the new social movements (Day, 2015; Gohn, 2008) and social groups (Maia, 2013; Perez; Souza, 2017), as well as youths and digital technologies of information and communication (Corrochano, 2018); Castells, 2013; Spósito, 2014). Students perceptions about the occupation have been investigated in three state high schools in Rio de Janeiro: C. E. Prefeito Mendes de Moraes; C. E. Amaro Cavalcanti; and C. E. José Leite Lopes. We have chosen these schools based on 40 videos, recorded and published by students in social networks during the occupation of different schools. From this media, a video of approximately four minutes was edited in order to emphasize themes that were going to be discussed in group interviews with the same students. By the research, we can understand that claims related to school infrastructure, to the lack of dialogue about teachers and students demands, and to the direct election of schools principals, promoted unity among students before and in the beginning of occupation. The moment of disagreement between the two groups of students, in opposed ways of positioning, happened right in the beginning of occupation itself, what shows two different views about school. Emphasis in the relational and affective dimensions of occupation can be observed in the discourse of students who were for the movement. They show that school belongs to them and is a common space made for current and future students, where they should be able to show their point of view. On the other hand, students who were against the movement emphasize the academic dimension of school and a possible damage caused by the occupation regarding their preparation to High School National Exam (ENEM in Portuguese), which is used for admittance to universities in Brazil. These students pragmatically worry about lost lessons, curriculum and a possible damage in school s propaedeutic perspective. The research has also identified material and symbolic gains, resulting from the occupation. Among the material gains, we can point out: i) actions to assure transparency in the use of public budget intended to students meals; ii) a law to establish that schools principals should be directly elected by the school community; iii) reinstatement of a legal measure related to students council; iv) establishment of R$ 15.000,00 (fifteen thousand reais) to be transferred to each school that was occupied, except the school José Leite Lopes, which received funds only for emergency repairs; v) commitment to overhaul 185 schools that had the worst infrastructure indexes, publishing all the expenses; vi) discontinuation of tests aiming on state schools accountability. Among the main symbolic gains, this study identified institutional changes focused on students’ claims, such as a greater dialogue with schools principals.