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The executive functions (EFs) are a range of cognitive skills involved in the conscious control of action and thought. The development of these functions follows the extended myelination process of the prefrontal cortex and, because of that, it is exposed, not only to biological factors but also to environmental ones. Being the parent figure an important agent in children s environment, this academic work intended to investigate the relationships between parental behavior and executive functions in school-age children. This work is formed by two studies: the first one is based on a systematic review that, from a detailed selection, elected 10 articles that were analyzed considering general and methodological aspects, parenting, EFs and results found on the influence that prental behaviours perform on EFs. All articles presented direct or indirect relationships between parental behavior and child executive functioning. The second study aimed to investigate the relationships between parenting style, maternal practices and executive functions in 8-11-year-old children. Furthermore, it investigated the role of the mother s education and the family income in these relationships. The sample consisted of 75 children that were assessed regarding working memory, inhibitory control, verbal fluency, and planning. As results, the parenting practice of a lenient discipline by the parents was associated with inhibitory control s performance, and moral behavior was positively associated with working memory. In turn, mother s education and income were po-sitively correlated with inhibitory control, planning, and verbal fluency. In conclusion, some relationships between parenting and executive functions were found, highlighting the importance of parental consistency in this dynamics.