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Título:THE REGULARITIES OF THE SYSTEM AND THE GAME: CONVERGENCES AND DIVERGENCES BETWEEN CHOMSKY AND WITTGENSTEINInstituição:PONTIFÍCIA UNIVERSIDADE CATÓLICA DO RIO DE JANEIRO - PUC-RIO Autor(es):BRUNO ANTONIO BIMBI
This work reflects on the commensurability between the Chomskyan and the Wittgenstenian perspectives of language in general, and in particular it deals with issues on meaning. The goal of the research was to examine, in the mature texts of Wittgenstein, in the most recent developments of Chomsky — taking into consideration the successive changes in generative theory — and in the works of other authors that align themselves with the ideas of one or the other or devote themselves to study them, convergences and divergences relevant to them. The research adopted a pragmatic and anti-essentialist approach to language, more specifically the version of this approach offered by Wittgenstein s more mature philosophy, mostly in his Philosophical Investigations. Without renouncing this approach, the theories of human language supported by Noam Chomsky were analyzed, which are generally considered as opposed to those of the Viennese philosopher, starting from the hypothesis that it is possible to find, in the dialog between them, possible complementarities for a better understanding of how human language works. The present work are guided by following thesis: (1) Chomsky s and Wittgenstein s points of view about language are not completely irreconcilable and there can be convergences, divergences and possible complementarities that are worth exploring; (2) the contemporary versions of Chomsky s theories can be more open to a rapprochement with Wittgenstein than past versions; (3) some contradictions between the analysis of Chomsky and Wittgenstein can be attributed to the difference between the points of view and methods of a philosopher and those language of a scientist, or to conceptual confusions originated in the tricks of language itself – terms used by them or by their more outstanding commentators in ways that seem highly contradictory, leading us to the conclusion that there is an insurmountable incompatibility between their points of view; (4) at least partially, some of those contradictions can be attributed to the conflict between the Chomskyan hypothesis about the Autonomy of Syntax and the almost exclusive preoccupation of Wittgenstein for the meaning. Among other relevant aspects of the ideas of both authors, we will analyze how they use terms like representation, mind, description and explanation; fundamental questions for both, like their ideas about what it is to learn a language and follow a rule, and about distinctive notions of their thought, like the Wittgenstenian notion of form of life and the Chomskyan innate hypothesis. Finally, we analyze in deep two explicit disputes between Chomsky and Wittgenstein, taking as a starting point two texts of the former that formulate detailed criticism to important aspects of the latter s philosophy: the argument of private language and the criticism of the idea that there are brain processes correlated to thought.