As obras disponibilizadas nesta Biblioteca Digital foram publicadas sob expressa autorização dos respectivos autores, em conformidade com a Lei 9610/98.
A consulta aos textos, permitida por seus respectivos autores, é livre, bem como a impressão de trechos ou de um exemplar completo exclusivamente para uso próprio. Não são permitidas a impressão e a reprodução de obras completas com qualquer outra finalidade que não o uso próprio de quem imprime.
A reprodução de pequenos trechos, na forma de citações em trabalhos de terceiros que não o próprio autor do texto consultado,é permitida, na medida justificada para a compreeensão da citação e mediante a informação, junto à citação, do nome do autor do texto original, bem como da fonte da pesquisa.
A violação de direitos autorais é passível de sanções civis e penais.
This thesis is composed of three independent empirical articles. In the first
chapter is evaluated to what extent differences in labor supply factors and careers
by gender influence the wage gap observed in the brazilian formal labor market.
For this, we use a 1 percent representative random sample of the workers in RAIS /
MTE between the years 1994 and 2009. From this information is retrieved the
career path of individuals in the sample. The empirical strategies exploit the
longitudinal feature of this database to generate complementary information about
the gender wage gap. The results show that the labor market history measures
have economically relevant impacts on individual incomes. Career interruptions
reduce average earnings and workers with continuous labor market attachment
have higher wages. However, the inclusion into the analysis of these more reliable
job experience variables results in a reduction of up to 10 percent in the magnitude of
the gender wage gap estimates. This represents a quite reduced influence. The
second chapter investigates the relative importance of two dimensions of teacher
quality for the learning in mathematics and Portuguese of eighth graders of the
elementary school in São Paulo state. For this purpose, we adopt an approach
based on the educational production function and the main specification uses a
value added model with control for the students past grades. The results show
that both the teachers knowledge and pedagogical activities inside the classroom
have a positive and statistically significant impact on the acquisition of cognitive
skills. However, the teachers knowledge effect has a small economic magnitude.
Yet the impacts associated with the frequent application of effective teaching
practices are quite large. For instance, the intervention defined by the replacing a
math teacher who does not always give homework for another that does it,
increases the students proficiency in approximately 12 percent of a standard deviation
of the grades distribution. The third chapter examines the relationship between
political partisanship and government size for the context of the brazilian
municipalities after 2004 local election. In order to achieve this, we use a
regression discontinuity research design to estimate the local causal effect on
political choices of a municipality being governed by a left-wing party instead of a
right-wing one. The results show that left-wing governments spend
proportionately less on urbanism and health, and more on administration.
Nevertheless, this higher administrative spending is not associated with an
excessive hiring of public employees.