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The growing world demand for raw minerals has led to the increased mineral exploration and at the same time new research is being directed toward the production of new flotation reagents, so that they present higher selectivity and they are environmentally friendly. This research aimed to study the fundamental aspects of bioflotation of hematite, evaluating the bacterial strain Rhodococcus erythropolis as biocollector. Among the studies are conducted chemical analyzes to determine the proteins and carbohydrates present in the bacterial concentrate, it was established that is composed of macromolecules with amphipathic characteristics. The balance between cationic and anionic groups of the bacteria assigns an equivalent isoelectric point (IEP) of 2.2. The profile of zeta potential of the sample of hematite mineral after interaction with the bacteria showed a change, where the IEP has changed from 5.3 to 2.1. To study the adhesion and microflotation assays, the mineral sample was conditioned with the biomass by stirring under specific conditions, such as the particle sizes, biomass concentration, the pH of the solution and conditioning time. The biomass adhesion on mineral surface was higher at pH 2 and at the concentration of 200 mg / L. The microflotation tests were carried out in Hallimond tube and was evaluated the foam formation to a bacterial concentration of 200 mg / L, which was observed that the surface tension of the solution increases as the pH becomes basic. Of the three granulometric fractions used, the greatest floatability (83.86 percent) was achieved in the granulometric fraction (53 - 38 um), at pH 6 and with a flotation time of 10 min. The hematite mineral bioflotation follows the second-order kinetic model, was observed rate constant (K2) of the mineral flotation increase with reductions of particle size, moving from 0,16369 (g.min)(-1) for 0,51604 (g.min)(-1) when the particle size changed from (150 - 106 um) to (53 - 38 um). The results presented show that the study of the behavior of the bacterial 10 strain Rhodococcus erythropolis as bioreagent in the flotation of hematite was feasible, demonstrating its potential use as collector bioreagent of mineral hematite, and so projecting into a future application in the mineral flotation industry.