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Coleção Digital


Estatísticas | Formato DC |

Nº do Conteudo: 25019
Catalogação:  10/08/2015 Idioma(s):  PORTUGUESE - BRAZIL
Tipo:  TEXT Subtipo:  THESIS
Nota:  Todos os dados constantes dos documentos são de inteira responsabilidade de seus autores. Os dados utilizados nas descrições dos documentos estão em conformidade com os sistemas da administração da PUC-Rio.
Referência [pt]:  https://www.maxwell.vrac.puc-rio.br/colecao.php?strSecao=resultado&nrSeq=25019@1
Referência [en]:  https://www.maxwell.vrac.puc-rio.br/colecao.php?strSecao=resultado&nrSeq=25019@2
Referência DOI:  https://doi.org/10.17771/PUCRio.acad.25019

This dissertation presents the results obtained in the remediation process remediation of a contaminated area by hexavalent chromium applying the technology in situ chemical remediation (ISCR). The study area is located in the Rio de Janeiro city and was occupied by a glass factory for forty years and purchased for construction of residential condominiums. This dissertation presents the results obtained in the remediation process remediation of a contaminated area by hexavalent chromium applying the technology in situ chemical remediation (ISCR). The study area is located in the Rio de Janeiro city and was occupied by a glass factory for forty years and purchased for construction of residential condominiums. Chromium is an important metal for the industry and is used in various products and processes, such as electroplating, leather treatment, pulp, wood preservation, and refractory manufacturing. The trivalent chromium is essential from a nutritional point of view, non-toxic and poorly absorbed in the body, acting in the maintenance of some functions. Cr(III) is the most common being found and occurs naturally, since the element Cr(VI) can occur naturally, but in low concentrations, if the groundwater has geochemical conditions the Cr (III) can be oxidize to Cr (VI). The hexavalent chromium is the most dangerous valence state and, according to ATSDR (two thousand and twelve), have greater mobility in the groundwater, being carcinogenic by inhalation of high doses of soluble chromate salts. The mobility of hexavalent chromium is high in soil and groundwater because it is not adsorbed by the soil in that valence state, on the other hand when it is in trivalent form is strongly adsorbed by the soil, forming insoluble precipitates, having low mobility in soil and groundwater. The hexavalent chromium remediation by in situ chemical reduction using calcium polysulfide has been the subject of several field studies documented in the literature, both for soil and groundwater from the Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR) (Storch, et al., two thousand and two; Graham, et al., two thousand and six ; Charboneau, et al., two thousand and six ; Wazne, et al., two thousand seven a; Wazne, et al., two thousand seven b; Chrysochoou, et al., two thousand and ten ; Chrysochoou & Ting, two thousand and eleven ; Pakzadeh & Batista, two thousand and eleven ; Chrysochoou, et al., two thousand and twelve ). Calcium polysulfide is a fertilizer to soil and commercially available and has been used in some remediation studies cases for reducing hexavalent chromium in soil and groundwater. Being commercially available and used as fertilizer, it is a relatively cheap chemical reagent in comparison with other chemical compounds exclusively developed for this purpose. The stoichiometric demand and the chemical kinetics of the reduction of Cr (VI) by the calcium polysulfide in aqueous solution was studied by Graham et al. (two thousand and six) from the chromite ore processing residue (COPR). With this study it was reported that a molar ratio of a point sixty-six is required (close to the theoretical value of one point five) and a first-order kinetics with an initial concentration of twenty-six eight point mg/L and pH of the CPS solution around eleven point five, with the presence of oxygen. Thus, the hexavalent chromium is reduced to chromium hydroxide, slightly water soluble compound which is precipitated to the soil. The trivalent chromium has low solubility, toxicity, mobility, reactivity and is considered stable. There are various application techniques of chemical reagents in the underground environment, and choosing the most appropriate method for each area depends on the type of contaminant, geological environment, groundwater and surface interference, depth, thickness and size of the contaminated area. As described by Suthersan (mil novecentos ninety-six), the injection of chemical reagents has to achieve two objectives: (one) creating and maintaining an ideal redox environment and other parameters such as pH, presence or absence of dissolved oxygen, etc.; and (two) the delivery and distribution of the necessary reagents for a homogeneous way throughout the injection area, both horizontally and vertically. Thus, it is essential that the conceptual model of the study area is very detailed, so there is no doubt in the choice of chemical reagent application methodology. Although there are numerous laboratory studies on hexavalent chromium remediation using calcium polysulfide, there are few reports in the literature on the field application, especially case studies in Brazil, therefore, this case study becomes a demonstration applying calcium polysulfide as a remediation technique for hexavalent chrome, with geochemical data, which are important for monitoring chemical reduction. This case study shows the effectiveness, dosage and concentration of the study area, and may apply to other hexavalent chromium remediation projects. Materials and Methods A former glass factory (the Site ) operated in the North Zone of Rio de Janeiro / RJ, Brazil from the mid-thousand nine hundred and fifty s to two thousand and five. A portion of the facility was used to store raw material to produce glass, including arsenic oxide, and another portion of the Site was used to conduct industrial plating using hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in the glass molds. In two thousand and nine, the Site was purchased for mixed use redevelopment, demanding an environmental assessment and subsequent remediation. Between two thousand and nine and two thousand and twelve several phases of site investigation was conducted. The results of the investigation indicated that Cr(VI) was present in soil at concentrations up to approximately twenty one mg/kg and in groundwater at concentrations up to approximately thirty mg/L. These concentrations exceeded regulatory criteria of three hundred mg/Kg for soil and zero point zero five mg/L for groundwater. A phased remedial approach was developed consisting of the following: (a) excavation and off-site disposal of two and four hundred ton of Cr(VI) impacted soil from the source area, performed in the unsaturated and saturated zone soils in the Cr(VI) source area; (b) post-excavation monitoring of the groundwater conditions; and (c) groundwater treatment following the excavation program. Hexavalent chromium concentrations in groundwater decreased significantly following the excavation, however, additional reduction of concentrations of Cr(VI) contaminant in groundwater was required. Then was designed and implemented a set of bench-scale treatability tests in order to evaluate groundwater remediation alternatives. Several proprietary and non-proprietary reductants for co-treatment of Cr(VI) were evaluated. Calcium polysulfide were selected to treat Cr(VI). To reduce residual Cr(VI) concentrations in the groundwater plume located downgradient of the former excavated source area, dois e seven hundred cubic meters were targeted for active treatment. The groundwater remediation approach consisted of the injection of thirty liters of CPS (twenty nine percent) diluted in two hundred and twenty liters of water, yielding a total of two hundred and fifty liters of solution injected using direct push technology into seventy two locations. Groundwater Monitoring As part of chemical reagent injection stage was performed the baseline monitoring with collection of soil and groundwater samples. The soil sampling was performed by direct push technique using PVC liner with two inches in diameter, to analyze the total and hexavalent chromium concentrations. Six months after the injection were installed sixteen monitoring wells, eight shallow wells (five meters) and eight deep wells (nine meters) spread upstream, side, middle and downstream of the injection area. Groundwater geochemical parameters (i.e., temperature, total solids dissolved, specific conductance, pH, oxidation-reduction potential, and temperature) were measured at the time groundwater samples were collected. Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for total and dissolved chromium, hexavalent chromium, iron, arsenic, manganese, calcium, sulfate, and sulfide. Samples were field-filtered with disposable zero point forty-five μm polyethylene filter capsules prior to collecting samples for dissolved metals. Results and Discussion Dose calculations for the reduction of hexavalent chromium have been performed with the data obtained in the bench-scale treatability test and resulted in a stoichiometric demand of four mlCPS/kg soil to the treatment of the study area. Therefore thirty liters of solution was used containing twenty-nine percent calcium polysulfide and approximately two hundred and twenty two liters to perform their mixture, totaling two hundred and fifty-two thousand and thirty liters of solution. For solution injection were performed seventy two soil borings with eight point five meters deep, and the product was injected range between two point five and eightpoint five meters. The depth of injection was from two point five mbgl covered any change in water level due to seasonal variation. In each soil boring was injected chemical reagent solution comprised four hundred and seventeen liters of calcium polysulfide diluted in tree and eighty-three liters of water for a total volume of tree and a half liters of solution injected per point. The comparative analysis results of the third monitoring campaign ( eighteen months post-injection) with the baseline campaign (september/two thousand and twelve) indicated reduction of hexavalent chromium concentrations between forty-six point sixty-seven and ninety-nine and ninety-five percent. Regarding the second monitoring campaign (twelve months post-injection), the hexavalent chromium concentrations reduced between twenty-three point ninety-nine and ninety nine point seventy-nine percent in five of the fifteen monitoring wells that were sampled. In three of the fifteen monitoring wells the hexavalent chromium concentrations remained below the quantitation limit used by the analytical laboratory method. There was no increase in hexavalent chromium concentration, compared the results of the third and second monitoring campaign. The evaluation of the Eh and pH values measured in the monitoring campaigns showed that the pH value was in the acidic range (about four ) and after removal of contaminated soil with hexavalent chromium pH raised to between five and six, after the chemical reagent injection pH increased to the basic range (above seven point five). In the second and third campaign the pH reduced to acid range (below six point five), which can be regarded as the pH value of the area background. The Eh has inversely proportional behavior, increasing between the first and third campaign, and in the third campaign the measured values are in the ranges considered as moderately reducing (hundred to four hundred mV) and oxidizer (> four hundred mV). The pH variation also showed a relationship between increased concentrations of calcium, iron, manganese and sulfate (in some monitoring wells). There were also reductions in hexavalent chromium concentrations in monitoring wells. Conclusion This case study indicates that the use of different remediation techniques when applied together (excavation and chemical reduction), reducing the time required for remediation of a contaminated site without impacting the final cost of remediation. The chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium using calcium polysulfide was effective to reduce the concentration to less than the quantification limit of the analytical method used. Therefore, as presented it is necessary to carry out several studies to detail the hexavalent chromium concentration in the site, as well as understand the geochemistry of groundwater and performing bench-scale tests to evaluate the effectiveness of the chemical reagent in the site study hydrogeological environment and calculate the required dose. The treatability test with calcium polysulfide demonstrated the feasibility of using this chemical reagent by In Situ Chemical Reduction (ISCR) to reduce the hexavalent chrome concentration in soil and groundwater. The test resulted in a stoichiometric demand of four mlCPS /kg soil to the treatment of the study area. Soil samples collected six months after injection showed that the calcium polysulfide could desorb hexavalent chromium from the soil, since, contaminant concentrations were not detected in the samples. neteen months after the injection of the chemical reagent the groundwater concentrations of hexavalent chromium reduced from forty-six point sixty-seven to ninety-nine and ninety-five percent in relation to baseline campaign. And, of the fifteen monitoring wells in just three wells hexavalent chromium concentrations were detected. This demonstrates the effectiveness of using calcium polysulfide to remediate hexavalent chromium in soil and groundwater, confirming the studies by Storch et al. (two thousand and two), Graham et al (two thousand and six), Charboneau et al. ( two thousand and six), Wazne et al. (two thousand and seven a), Wazne et al. (two thousand and seven b), Chrysochoou et al. (two thousand and ten), Chrysochoou & Ting (two thousand and eleven), Pakzadeh & Batista (two thousand and eleven), Chrysochoou et al (2012) in several areas in United States and Europe.

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