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Título:VALUING OF KNOWLEDGE IN ORGANIZATIONS: PERCEPTIONS OF THE INDIVIDUALS AND IMPACTS ON ORGANIZATIONAL PRACTICESInstituição:PONTIFÍCIA UNIVERSIDADE CATÓLICA DO RIO DE JANEIRO - PUC-RIO Autor(es):ANDREA CHERMAN
The aim of this study is to present theoretical propositions for structuring the various ways that organizational members perceive and deal with the valuing of knowledge in the work context and its impacts on organizational practices. The Phenomenographic Method was used in this study because it seeks to achieve a broader understanding of the phenomenon by analyzing the various ways in which individuals conceive parts of it (MARTON, 1981; MARTON e BOOTH, 1997; SANDBERG, 2001). The conceptions were organized into inclusive categories and ordered in an Outcome Space Map. In addition, a focus group was conducted with interviewees in order to obtain an internal validation of the Outcome Space Map. For the study, 22 in-depth interviews were undertaken with human resource professionals. Five conceptions regarding the phenomenon of the knowledge valuing in organizations, from the narrowest to the most wide-ranging, emerged from these interviews: Application to Work, Consideration of the Individual-Work Relation, Realization of the Individual at Work, Transformation of Work and the Individual, Emerging Creation for Life. The conceptions constituted a fluid, bidirectional and transitory continuum, demonstrating that they were accessed by individuals in a more dynamic and active way than could be expected according to the method. Phenomenography revealed that knowledge valuing is a social construction, while the Sociology of Translation (LATOUR, 2012), with its approach of knowing-in-practice and action (GHERARDI, 2002; 2006; ORLIKOWSKI, 2000; PATRIOTTA, 2003a), provided the explanatory dimension. Organizational practices were analyzed as routines embedded in action (FELDMAN and ORLIKOWSKI, 2011; FELDMAN and PENTLAND, 2003; PARMIGIANI and HOWARD-GRENVILLE, 2011). Several findings emerged: different dimensions of social interaction (peers, top management, leadership and organization) exercise distinct influences on conceptions of knowledge valuing, due to the individual’s perceptions and the resulting importance attributed to these levels/groups. The organization and its direct mediators exercise a greater influence on the valued knowledge to be adopted by organizational members. Identification with the organizational identity (ASHFORTH et al., 2008; CORLEY et al., 2006) is a mechanism through which individuals express the alignment between their conception of valuable knowledge and the knowledge valued by the organization. This results in subtle or declared power mechanisms. Each type of organizational arrangement has its corresponding dominant conception of knowledge valuing, given that the relational construction formed by the interactions between the actors of that collective, produces both the way of conceiving the organization and the knowledge valued in it. It is suggested that knowledge in organizations is a relational, unique and indissociable individual-organizational knowledge phenomenon (ELKJAER, 2003; LATOUR, 2012). Finally, the valuing of knowledge in the work context is shown to be a preponderantly self-referential and self-produced phenomenon in organizations, where only a small amount of valued knowledge is incorporated into organizational practices. The study shows the various ways that individual knowledge, with all its potentialities, could be included in organizational practices.