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Título:READING SKILLS AND PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICES ASSOCIATED TO THE INCREASE OF LEARNING Instituição:PONTIFÍCIA UNIVERSIDADE CATÓLICA DO RIO DE JANEIRO - PUC-RIO Autor(es):LUCIA HELENA GAZOLIS DE OLIVEIRA
In the area of researches about effective schools, this study investigates
specially the teacher effect in the learning of reading by students of the second
and third grades of elementary school. Our interest is to investigate which
practices are related to the increase of learning of the different skills that need to
be constructed during the learning of a native language, and also to check if the
impacts of these practices are different in each grade of elementary school.
The analyzed data were collected in a longitudinal project called GERES –
Estudo Longitudinal da Geração Escolar 2005. The subsample uses cognitive
data of 17,628 students, distributed in 671 groups of 225 schools. The research
took place in county, state, federal, and private schools of the following cities: Rio
de Janeiro (RJ), Belo Horizonte (MG), Campinas (SP), and Campo Grande (MS).
The contextual data of the subsample correspond to information provided by the
teachers of those groups.
This study may be condensed in three complementary investigations. The
first one corresponds to the pedagogical interpretation of the proficiency scale,
which is mandatory to the comprehension of any posterior result, considering that
the numerical values of the sample do not have intrinsic meaning. Therefore,
tests items were examined in detail, according to their distribution in the scale’s
proficiency ranges, in order to make clear what the students are able to do in each
item. After this, a new pedagogical analysis was done with the intention of
making the group of skills coherent, interpreting their different learning levels.
In the second investigation, we search for evidences of the existence of subscales
of skills that are internally related to the learning of reading. At the same time, we
investigate if the practices declared by the teachers may also be expressed by
scales. The constructs were initially defined by conceptual analysis and later by statistic procedures, which were necessary for their authentication.
Finally, in the third investigation, which was the main objective of this study, we
examine the effect of Portuguese language practices on the learning of the
students who were evaluated along the research. The methodology we used for
this association was based on the Hierarchical Multilevel Models (student and
teacher levels). This methodology is ideal for researches based on hierarchically
aligned data, what happens to educational research.
The results of the research reveal good measures for the reading practices scales. The scales obtained were: (i) teacher reads for the students, (ii) teacher asks the
students to read in silence, and (iii) teacher asks the students to read aloud.
Although the results were not so statistically expressive, the scales we obtained
for the reading skills were: (i) reading code processing; (ii) localizing explicit
information; (iii) integrating text and context; and (iv) taking up discursive aspects
from the text.
The association between Portuguese language practices and proficiency has
showed different achievements by the students. It varied mainly according to the
skill, the school grade, and the teachers’ practices. Some of the results are that: (i)
emphasizing traditional methods showed a negative relation with the learning of
reading code processing and localizing explicit information in the second grade;
(ii) in the third grade, highlighting copy, dictation, and calligraphy showed a
negative relation to students’ learning in all the researched skills; and (iii) it was
also observed that when the teacher reads for the students, in the third grade, it
aggregates relevant knowledge to the students in all the researched skills, being
this practice the only one that maintained significance in the research.